Dinosaurs are large reptilian creatures that cover multiple species of animals. Dinosaurs are natives to Argonnessen, Khorvaire, Xen'drik, and the Frostfell, though the dragons of Argonnessen have purged their continent of carnivorous dinosaurs, while the civilized races of Khorvaire have forced the dinosaurs into regions like the Talenta Plains and Q'barra. The halflings of the Talenta Plains have formed spiritual bonds with the animals, and use them as mounts.[1][2][3]

History[edit | edit source]

Dinosaurs originated on the continents of Argonnessen, Khorvaire, Xen'drik, and the Frostfell. Since there was no ice age in the world of Eberron, dinosaurs continued to be a dominant species in the world. However, the fates of the dinosaurs differed on each continent.[1]

On Argonnessen, the continent of the dragons, the dinosaurs continue to roam free for the most part. The dragons eliminated most of the more powerful carnivores from the continent, though some still remain in the continent's internal jungle. In addition, the dragons have imported other creatures from around the world, turning some dinosaurs from the hunters to the hunted.[1][4]

Drow riding dragons and glidewings

On Xen'drik, dinosaurs remain one of the prevalent species on the lost continent. They can be found in all of the continent's climates, and have been tamed by some of the natives of that land, including the drow. Due to the unusual magical effects prevalent in Xen'drik, explorers may find unusual mutated dinosaurs, such as two-headed swordtooth titans.[1][5][6]

On the Frostfell, there have been rare sightings of halflings riding fastieths and white-feathered clawfoots, especially in the regions around Skairn. These same dinosaurs have been spotted on the northern islands of the Lhazaar Principalities.[2]

Talenta halflings and their dinosaur mounts herding animals

On Khorvaire, dinosaurs were once prominent across the continent, until settlements pushed them back to either the Talenta Plains or the jungle nation of Q'barra. Even from the beginning, the halfling natives of Khorvaire saw the uses of the dinosaurs, and trained large numbers of them to act as their mounts. Over the years, they developed a spiritual bond to the creatures. They would train these beasts to act as mounts in combat, or even as pack animals. The halflings especially preferred taming clawfoots, fastieths, and glidewings.[1][2][7]

Halfling dinosaur-riders proved pivotal during the Last War, then the halflings were forced to defend their land. The halflings entered the war in 929 YK, when Cyran forces were driven back by the united tribes of the halflings, all on cavalry-back atop dinosaurs. With the halflings threatened, they began raiding the forces of the neighboring nations of Cyre, Karrnath, and Valenar, often sending herded dinosaurs into their enemies' front lines.[2][8]

Elves riding dinosaurs towards a city.

In Q'barra, dinosaurs continue to live relatively free. They are hunted by the lizardfolk of the region, and have been recruited by the lizardfok and dragonborn of Haka'torvhak to act as guardians to the black dragon Rhashaak and the fiend that lies beneath. Dinosaurs have also been spotted on the islands of the Lhazaar Principalities that lie directly to the east of Q'barra.[2][8][9]

Dinosaur wrangling in action

Dinosaurs have not just been captured and trained by the drow and the halflings, however. House Vadalis, with their Mark of Handling, have been known to train dinosaurs, and deliver them to their clients for the right price. This practice increased during the Last War. In addition, House Deneith have recruited halfling mercenaries and their dinosaur mounts as part of their mercenary services.[8]

Species[edit | edit source]

Many species of dinosaurs have been classified by the people of Eberron:[1]

Common Name Scientific Name Draconic Name
Battletitan n/a Khomavharag'eth
Bladetooth Allosaurus Vharag'eth
Bloodstriker n/a Mekikaran'eth
Carver Deinonychus Ka'rhavad'eth
Carver, Great Megaraptor Haka'rhavad'eth
Clawfoot Velociraptor Rhavad'eth
Fastieth Leaellynasaura Falas'eth
Fintail Cryptoclidus Paharan'ost
Fintail, Great Elasmosaurus Hapaharan'ost
Fintail Titan Plesiosaurus Haka'paharan'ost
Fleshraker n/a Eshka'rhavad'eth
Giant Snapper Archelon Haka'hurak'aan
Glidewing Pteranodon Abarr'ien
Hammertail Ankylosaurus Hurak'eth
Maultooth Ichthyosaurus Ka'khuva'ost
Sea Render Mosasaurus Vharag'ost
Soarwing Quetzalcoatlus Shovath'ien
Spineback Spinosaurus Shafanna'eth
Swindlespitter n/a Fashekan'eth
Swordtooth Titan Tyrannosaurus Havharag'eth
Threehorn Triceratops Kotikaran'eth
Thunderherder Diplodocus (renamed from Seismosaurus) Khotasann'eth

Battletitan[edit | edit source]

Battletitans are giant bipedal dinosaurs with powerful jaws, massive teeth, and thick bony plates. They are frequently used as mounts, with steel half-plate barding and saddles attached to their backs.

Battletitans are not a true species of dinosaur, but rather are cross-bred in captivity. Most battletitans are trained at birth to be used as mounts in combat. Training usually takes six months, and a young battletitan can fetch up to 100,000 gp on the open market. Battletitans are naturally sterile.

Battletitans rely on their strong legs and jaws to pounce on their prey and rend it in half. In addition, the battletitan has a spiked tail, which it can use as a mace. Battletitans can swallow whole prey of size medium or smaller. Like most dinosaurs, battletitans can track by scent, and possess low-light vision.[3]

Battletitans have even been seen bred by the dragons of Argonnessen, where they participate in the war games of the dragons Schaisos and Nyssyeran.[4]

Bladetooth[edit | edit source]

The bladetooth is a bipedal dinosaur with strong, powerful rear legs with clawed feet, but its forearms are tiny with three clawed fingers. It has bony ridges on its head, and a row of razor-sharp serrated teeth in its powerful jaws. Bladeteeth are 36 feet long and weigh one-and-a-half tons.

The bladetooth is a carnivorous dinosaur that eats both mammals and smaller dinosaurs. It cannot swallow its prey whole, so it uses its large legs to pounce on its prey, then grab them with its large jaws. It then uses those jaws to tear large chunks from its prey.

In addition to its ability to pounce and to rake its targets, bladeteeth can also trample their foes beneath their strong hind legs. Like most dinosaurs, bladeteeth can track by scent, and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.[12]

Bloodstriker[edit | edit source]

The bloodstriker is a four-legged dinosaur with a thick, spiked hide. Two large horns jut from the bloodstriker's forehead, which it uses to burrow away from hunters. Bloodstrikers weigh about one thousand pounds, and measure fourteen feet long.

Bloodstrikers are omnivores that feed on vegetation and larger insects. Bloodstrikers are the prey of other carnivorous dinosaurs, and will use their horns to burrow and hide from their predators, in addition to hiding from their prey. When burrowed, just the eyes and the tops of their head can be seen.

Bloodstrikers possess caustic blood, which can dissolve even metal. Bloodstrikers can even squirt this blood at its opponents as an offensive weapon. Bloodstrikers also possess low-light vision.[3]

Bloodstrikers have been found roaming the Talenta Plains.[14]

Carver[edit | edit source]

Carvers are lean, long-legged bipedal dinosaurs. They possess multicolored hides, not unlike a tropical bird. They have small forearms with sharpened claws, and it stands about as tall as a human. Its tail juts directly out of its rear end, held aloft by an intricate skeletal structure. It weighs about six-hundred pounds, and is carnivorous.

Carvers are especially fast, and uses its speed to run headlong at its prey. Once it catches up to its prey, it leaps using its hind legs, and it uses its grasping forearms to hold its prey down while its sharp teeth rip into its prey. Carvers are more intelligent than other dinosaurs, and will use tactics to hunt its prey. Carvers can usually be found in packs of up to six, but will also hunt alone.[17]

Packs of carvers run wild on the Talenta Plains, and are a danger to the halflings that live there. They will occasionally spill into neighboring Karrnath as well.[14][18] In addition, packs of carvers hunt in the jungles of Q'barra.[19]

Carver, Great[edit | edit source]

Great carvers are larger versions of carvers. Like their smaller counterparts, they use their powerful legs and great speed to hunt down their prey. Great carvers are also carnivorous, and stand about twelve feet tall and are about twenty-four feet long.[17]

Clawfoot[edit | edit source]

The clawfoot is a two-legged dinosaur, with sharp teeth and a single toe claw that looks like a small sickle. It is no larger than a tall human, but looks like it could easily take down much larger prey. Like their cousins the carvers and great carvers, clawfoots bring down their prey with their speed and their talons. In the wild, clawfoots use pack tactics to hunt their prey.

Clawfoots attack using their claws, talons, and their teeth. They travel in packs of up to six. They track using scent, and they possess low-light vision.[1]

Clawfoots are used as war mounts by the halflings of the Talenta Plains. Even when domesticated, they keep their predatory instincts. Many laths keep clawfoots as guards or animal companions, and clawfoots can be found as guards in the occasional House Ghallanda enclave, including the one in Sharn. Clawfoots have even been known to be domesticated enough to perform in House Ghallanda plays at the theater.[1][7][18][22]

Fastieth[edit | edit source]

Fastieths are human-sized, two legged dinosaurs. They possess large eyes, scales with brightly-colored patterns, and strong legs. Fastieths are amongst the fastest land dinosaurs known. Like other dinosaurs, fastieths track by sense of smell, and possess low-light vision.

Fastieths are chosen and bred by the halflings of the Talenta Plains. They are too small to carry a medium-sized humanoid, but can perfectly accommodate the small-sized halflings, in addition to their light gear and packs. While the fastieths are not trained for combat and prefer to flee rather than fight, they are capable of defending themselves with lunging bite attacks.[1]

Fastieths have been problematic to the lightning rail tracks that cross the Talenta Plains, and have been known to try to attack the conductor stones that make up the tracks.[24]

Fintail[edit | edit source]

Fintails are large aquatic dinosaurs, with ovoid bodies and elongated necks. Fintails live in the water, using their four paddle-like fins to propel themselves. They also possess a finned tail as well, which helps them navigate. It is just as fast across the surface of the ocean as it does fully submerged. Fintails measure about 10 feet long.

Fintains are carnivorous, hunting fish with its long neck. It will whip its neck at schools of fish, snapping up as much fish as possible. If the size of the fish is size small or smaller, the fintail can even swallow it whole. Like other dinosaurs, fintails track by sense of smell, and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.[12]

Fintail, Giant[edit | edit source]

Giant fintails are larger versions of their fintail cousins. They also possess elongated necks and ovoid bodies. Giant fintains measure thirty feet long, and can weigh up to 5,000 pounds. Unlike fintails, giant fintails do not possess darkvision.

Giant fintails are much more aggressive than their fintail cousins. In general, giant fintails will attack anything it notices, darting forward with its neck and lunging at its prey.[17]

Fleshraker[edit | edit source]

Fleshrakers are dinosaurs that can walk on both two legs and four. Thin spines run along the fleshraker's back and sinuous tail. The fleshraker has muscled forelimbs that glisten with clear liquid, and a long reptilian snout filled with sharp teeth. Each of the four limbs possess a pair of six-inch-long hooked claws. A fleshraker stands about seven feet tall, and weighs about 200 pounds.

Fleshrakers are clever predators that prefer to lurk in the underbrush or within the depths of dense forests. They hunt their prey in packs, preferring to rush solitary targets. They begin their assault with a leaping lunge, charging their foe. Fleshrakers possess poison claws that they use to dehabilitate their foes. Fleshrakers hunt by scent, and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.[3]

Glidewing[edit | edit source]

Glidewings are flying reptilian dinosaurs. Glidewings are bird-like in appearance, with a long, toothy beak and a thin crest emerging from the rear of the head. They fly via leathery, bat-like wings, which have small clawed forearms attached to it. Their eyes are large and yellow, and they have small tufts of feathers occasionally sprouting from their scaly skin.

While glidewings are carnivorous, they prefer the taste of fish over most land animals. They rely on swooping dives to surprise their prey, snatching them from the ocean unaware. They are incredibly fast fliers overland. Glidewings possess low-light vision to aide in their hunting.

Glidewings are native to both Khorvaire and Xen'drik, and have been tamed by both the halflings and the drow to be used as flying mounts.[1][6][30] Glidewings have been seen congregating above the Boneyard in the Talenta Plains.[4]

A glidewing represents the districts of Gate of Gold and the Stores in the Race of the Eight Winds, a popular aerial race in Sharn that happens once a year. The glidewing is garbed in gray and green and is extremely popular among the halflings of Sharn. Some say that the Boromar Clan is the financial force behind the Glidewing Wind Guard.[31]

Hammertail[edit | edit source]

Hammertails are herbivorous, four-legged dinosaurs. They are heavily armored, with a bony shell covering its back and sides. Protruding from this shell are a number of spikes, acting as a defensive encumberment to attacking predators. The hammertail's wide, flat armored head juts from the hammertail's body. On the other side, a heavy tail with a club-like end is used to defend the hammertail from attackers. Because of its armored nature, the hammertail can live comfortably in a multitude of environments, from forests to humid marshes to dry grasslands. Hammertails are between 25 and 35 feet in length, stand approximately four-and-a-half feet tall, and are about 7 to 8 feet wide.

Hammertails are herbivores, and do not hunt. They will defend themselves when attacked, using their club tail. They will also frequently travel in packs, giving themselves more protection in numbers. If a hammertail is attacked and outpowered, it will attempt to flee, trying to trample its attackers as it escapes. Hammertails, like other dinosaurs, track by scent and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.[12]

Soarwing[edit | edit source]

Soarwings are massive flying reptiles, and one of the more fearsome of the aerial predators known. A carnivore, the soarwing hunts meat and fish, though it will resort to eating carrion if necessary. Soarwings have long necks and elongated heads, with very small brains. They have leathery bat-like wings, much like the glidewing, but are missing the glidewing's occasional feathers. Their wings are controlled by their forearms, which are attached. Soarwings possess both low-light vision and darkvision.

Soarwings tend to fly in high altitudes in coveys of three to five, unless they are hunting prey, in which case they swoop down upon their targets. They detest being grounded in any form, and thus will try to eat their prey while staying aloft. Soarwings can swallow whole any creature of size medium or smaller.[12]

Spineback[edit | edit source]

Spinebacks are the largest of the bipedal carnivorous dinosaurs. It occasionally travels on all four legs as needed, but prefers to stand erect on its powerful hind legs. Spinebacks have a large, saillike, ribbed fin running down their back from the base of their neck to the start of their tail. The exact reason behind this fin is unknown. Spinebacks have large heads with sharp straight teeth that, unlike other dinosaurs, are not serrated. They possess great strength in their lower jaw, which is capable of locking down on its prey much like an alligator.

Spinebacks tens to start combat by emitting a soul-searing deep bellow, which freezes its prey in place in fear. They then quickly move in for the kill, trampling some of their prey while snapping up others in their powerful jaws. Spinebacks can move fast, and will hunt down prey that tries to escape them. Spinebacks can swallow whole prey of size large or smaller. Like other dinosaurs, they hunt by sense of smell, and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.[12]

Swindlespitter[edit | edit source]

Swindlespitters are bipedal, carnivorous dinosaurs with lithe bodies and whiplike tails. Swindlespitters have small, grasping hands, sharp beaks, and large pure black eyes. They stand less than three feet tall, and only weigh about thirty pounds.

Unlike other carnivorous dinosaurs that actively hunt their prey, swindlespitters rely on thievery. They will sneak into the nests of other dinosaurs, and steal the eggs of their larger brethren. They will bring these eggs back to their own nests, where they devour the unborn dinosaurs.

Swindlespitters possess a poison spray that they spew from their mouths. Like most dinosaurs, swindlespitters can track by scent, and possess both low-light vision and darkvision.

Swindlespitters are seen by some as a necessary evil, keeping the dinosaur population in check. it is not unusual to even find a swindlespitter as the animal companion of a druid.[3] The occasional swindlespitter has been seen as a pet, especially in a city like Sharn.[22]

Swordtooth Titan[edit | edit source]

Swordtooth titans are the most feared of all the dinosaurs. Towering above other dinosaurs, this carnivorous predator hunts all the other dinosaurs, as well as whatever crosses its path. They possess large heads with sharpened teeth. It possesses powerful hind legs, but its forearms are vestigial and near useless. The swordtooth titan's head alone is nearly 6 feet tall, with its teeth measuring between 3 and 6 inches long. The titan itself is about 30 feet long from nose to tail, and weigh about 6 tons.

Swordtooth titans grasp their prey in their large jaws, snapping them up off the ground and swallowing them whole. They will track their prey by scent, and possess low-light vision.[17]

Rumors exist of an albino swordtooth titan wandering the jungles of Q'barra. A retired member of the Wayfinder Foundation seeks this unusual creature and wants him brought to Sharn.[24] Occasionally, mutated two-headed swordtooth titans have been spotted in the wilds of Xen'drik.[5]

Threehorn[edit | edit source]

Threehorns are four-legged herbivorous dinosaurs with a huge plate protecting the front of its head. At the top of its head project two slightly-curved horns, with a shorter horn jutting from its nose, with the three horns giving the dinosaur its name.

While threehorns are not carnivorous, they can still be deadly. They travel in herds of up to eight creatures, and are extremely territorial. They will use their horns to charge opponents, trampling them under their feet. Threehorns will track via scent, and possess low-light vision.[17]

Thunderherder[edit | edit source]

Thunderherders are the largest of the known dinosaurs. They are four-legged herbivores with enormous appetites. They feed on all sorts of plants, and a single thunderherder has been known to deforest several square miles of terrain within the course of a few weeks. They possess a small head, bulky body, and a long neck and tail. Their nostrils are located high up on their head, allowing them to submerge themselves deep into the water.

Thunderherders are so colossal, that they even give swordtooth titans pause. While thunderherders can defend themselves using their tail as a whip, they are just as likely to inadvertently step on an opponent as tailwhip them.[12]

Thunderherder bacon is considered a delicacy, and can be found frequently served at the Glitterdust Nightclub in Sharn.[24]

Religion[edit | edit source]

Halflings on the move against a Swordtooth Titan

While dinosaurs have no religion on their own, they are often worshiped by the halflings, and seen as aspects of Balinor come to life. Every halfling warrior hopes to unite his spirit with the spirit of his dinosaur mount in the heat of battle, so that his spirit might be as worthy of reverence after death as his dinosaur's spirit already is.[2]

Notable Names[edit | edit source]

  • A swordtooth titan named Cutface was raised by a tribe of Talenta Plains halflings led by Moonlight, and aids them in their hunting.[39]
  • Lurking Two-Maws is a gargantuan mutated swordtooth titan that roams the jungles of Xen'drik.[40]

Appendix[edit | edit source]

External Links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Eberron Campaign Setting, p. ?. Keith Baker, Bill Slavicsek, & James Wyatt (2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3274-0.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Player's Guide to Eberron, p. ?. James Wyatt, Keith Baker, Luke Johnson, Steven Brown (2006). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3912-5.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Monster Manual III. Andrew Finch, Gwendolyn Kestrel, Chris Perkins (August 2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3430-1.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Dragons of Eberron, p. ?. Keith Baker, Scott Fitzgerald Gray, Nicolas Logue, & Amber Scott (2007). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-4154-5.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Secrets of Xen'drik. Keith Baker, Jason Bulmahn, & Amber Scott (2006). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3916-8.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Voyage of the Golden Dragon. Nicolas Logue (2006). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3907-9.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Races of Eberron, p. ?. Jesse Decker, Matthew Sernett, Gwendolyn F.M. Kestrel, & Keith Baker (2005). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3658-4.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 The Forge of War. James Wyatt, Wolfgang Baur, Ari Marmell (2007). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-4153-7.
  9. Dragonshards: The Lhazaar Principalities, Part 1. Keith Baker (May 2nd, 2005). Wizards of the Coast.
  10. Monster Manual III, p. 38. Andrew Finch, Gwendolyn Kestrel, Chris Perkins (August 2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3430-1.
  11. Monster Manual II, p. 70. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Monster Manual II. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  13. Monster Manual III, p. 39-40. Andrew Finch, Gwendolyn Kestrel, Chris Perkins (August 2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3430-1.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Five Nations. Bill Slavicsek, David Noonan, and Christopher Perkins (2005). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3690-8.
  15. Monster Manual, p. 60. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  16. Eberron Campaign Guide, p. 42. James Wyatt and Keith Baker (2009). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-5099-4.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Monster Manual, p. ?. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Dragonmarked. Keith Baker, Ari Marmell, Michelle Lyons and C.A. Suleiman (2006). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3933-8.
  19. Grasp of the Emerald Claw. Bruce R. Cordell (2005). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3907-9.
  20. Monster Manual, p. 60-61. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  21. Eberron Campaign Guide, p. 42. James Wyatt and Keith Baker (2009). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-5099-4.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Sharn: City of Towers. Keith Baker & James Wyatt (2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3434-4.
  23. Eberron Campaign Guide, p. 42. James Wyatt and Keith Baker (2009). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-5099-4.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Explorer's Handbook, p. ?. David Noonan, Rich Burlew, & Frank Brunner (2005). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3691-6.
  25. Monster Manual II, p. 70. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  26. Monster Manual, p. 60. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  27. Monster Manual III, p. 40-41. Andrew Finch, Gwendolyn Kestrel, Chris Perkins (August 2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3430-1.
  28. Eberron Campaign Setting, p. 280-281. Keith Baker, Bill Slavicsek, & James Wyatt (2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3274-0.
  29. Eberron Campaign Guide, p. 42. James Wyatt and Keith Baker (2009). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-5099-4.
  30. Whispers of the Vampire's Blade. David Noonan (2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3510-3.
  31. Dragonshards: The Race of the Eight Winds. Keith Baker (December 20, 2004). Wizards of the Coast.
  32. Monster Manual II, p. 70. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  33. Monster Manual II, p. 72. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  34. Monster Manual II, p. 72. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  35. Monster Manual III, p. 41. Andrew Finch, Gwendolyn Kestrel, Chris Perkins (August 2004). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-3430-1.
  36. Monster Manual, p. 61. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  37. Monster Manual, p. 61. Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook (July 2003). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2893-X.
  38. Monster Manual II, p. 72. Jeff Grubb, Rich Redman, Steve Winter, and Edward Bonny (September 2002). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-2873-5.
  39. "Crypt of Crimson Stars" (June 2005) by James Wyatt and Andy CollinsDungeon Magazine issue 123. 
  40. City of Stormreach. Keith Baker, Nicolas Logue, James "Grim" Desborough, C.A. Suleiman (2008). Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-4803-5.
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